The Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev, reorganized in 1920 into the Kiev Medical Institute, was founded in April 1840. 22 medical students who entered the faculty listened to the first lecture on anatomy on September 9, 1841.
Due to the lack of proper premises for the medical faculty, its opening was planned for 1842, when it was planned to complete the construction of the main university building. However, the need for doctors, especially in connection with the widespread epidemics in the country, was so great that in December 1840 Minister Uvarov, to change the previous decree, proposed to the administration of the University of Kiev in early 1841/42 AD. to open the 1st year of the medical faculty.
The term of study at the medical faculty was 5 years, and at all other faculties – 4 years.
According to the charter of 1842, intended exclusively for the University of Kiev, the medical faculty was to consist of the following departments: 1) physiological anatomy with micrography; 2) physiology of a healthy person; 3) physiology of a sick person, or pathological physiology with pathological anatomy; 4) general therapy and “medical substance” with the necessary instructions on toxicology; 5) operative surgery with a surgical clinic; 6) theoretical surgery with ophthalmology; 7) private therapy in full; 8) therapeutic clinic with semiotics; 9) theoretical and practical obstetrics, obstetric clinic; 10) state medical science, which includes: a) forensic medicine; b) medical police with hygiene; c) medical law, ie a summary of the case, the order of service, as well as information on civil service and jurisprudence to the extent necessary for the doctor; d) veterinary police with epizootic diseases. These departments were to be replaced gradually, with the organization of senior courses at the medical faculty.
Part of the laboratory property of the Vienna Medical and Surgical Academy, closed by the tsarist government shortly before the establishment of the faculty, was transferred to the Medical Faculty. Due to the fact that most of the professors and teachers of the academy were Poles, few of them were able to work at the Medical Faculty of Kyiv University.
In May 1845 the first issue took place. 3 people graduated from the Medical Faculty of Kyiv University with the title of doctor.
Already at the founding of the faculty he was given an important role in the system of medical education in Russia to become a leading center for other medical faculties in southern Russia.
The success of the medical faculty of Kyiv University is largely due to the fact that its development, as well as the origin of the faculty, is associated with the name of MI Pirogov. In the Diary of an Old Doctor, Mykola Ivanovych, talking about his activities as a member and commission at the Ministry of Education, says: “All affairs and even the election of medical faculties of all Russian universities passed through our hands. Especially the newly established at that time the faculty of Kiev University was almost entirely established and elected to our Commission. ”
Mykola Ivanovych’s students and successors were the first professors of the faculty – VO Karavaev, MI Kozlov, OP Walter.
The formation of VO Karavaev as a scientist and skilled surgeon took place under the direct influence of MI Pirogov, who wrote: in the study of surgery. ”
Professor of Anatomy MI Kozlov, while in Dorpat, listened to wonderful lectures by MI Pirogov, under his influence formed the scientific beliefs of MI Kozlov on anatomy. Kozlov’s great erudition gave him the opportunity to teach a course in the history of medicine at the same time, which was also to some extent influenced by his teacher, who paid much attention to the history of the development of medical knowledge. MI Pirogov’s genius, covering all the rich heritage of the past, sought the future, sought new scientific facts that could enrich medicine and indicate ways of its further development. This could not but affect the activities of his students.
The gradual development of MI Pirogov’s ideas at the Medical Faculty can also be traced to the activities of Kozlov’s successor in the Department of Anatomy, Professor OP Walter.
Attending lectures by MI Pirogov, as well as working in the clinic headed by him, the young OP Walter became an ardent supporter of his teacher, trying to imitate him as much as possible in the method of cognition of scientific truths, built on a solid foundation of established facts, without assuming any untested conclusions. The fact that OP Walter followed the ideas of MI Pirogov, as evidenced by his words: “Probably no one will reproach that I followed Pirogov everywhere, wherever but to do it…”
At the initiative of OP Walter, a building of the anatomical theater was built on Fundukleevskaya Street (now B. Khmelnytsky Street) according to the project of the famous architect OV Beretti – one of the best at that time not only in Russia but also in the world. VO Betz called it the “palace of science.”
Together with VO Karavaev and MI Kozlov, OP Walter sowed the seeds of those advanced ideas that gave a rich harvest in the future at the Medical Faculty of Kyiv University.
Under the influence of MI Pirogov, scientists of the Medical Faculty of Kiev University began to develop topical issues of military field surgery.
During the Crimean War in besieged Sevastopol, along with MI Pirogov, Kyiv surgeon H.Ya. Gubbene with a group of students of the Medical Faculty of Kyiv University. Kyiv surgeons SP Kolomnin, OS Yatsenko, and others worked in the active army during the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878).
In the early 60’s of the XIX century. At the University of Kyiv, the activities of the prominent Ukrainian Yu. K. Shimanovsky, who came to Kyiv at the invitation of MI Pyrogov, began. Pirogov significantly influenced Szymanowski’s activity in the field of surgery. His interest in osteoplasty, as well as achievements in the development and improvement of various osteoplastic methods are inextricably linked with the works of MI Pirogov in this field. At the personal request of Nikolai Ivanovich Szymanowski wrote an explanation of his classic work “Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascia”, as well as elaborated and supplemented illustrations to it.
For some time, the Department of Theoretical Surgery with the Hospital Surgical Clinic of the University of Kiev was headed by a prominent Russian surgeon MV Sklifosovsky, who was also recommended for this position by MI Pirogov.
Pirogov’s recommendation for candidates to replace the heads of departments at the University of Kiev has been a tradition for many years, one of the manifestations of MI Pirogov’s long-term influence on the development of the medical faculty of the University of Kiev. Prominent Kyiv surgeons MM Volkovych and AP Krymov were ardent followers of MI Pirogov.
The recognition of MI Pirogov’s great merits in the formation and development of the University of Kiev and, first of all, its medical faculty, is evidenced by his election as an honorary member of the university (April 20, 1855).
MI Pirogov had a direct influence on the development of the medical faculty at the time when he was the curator of the Kyiv educational district (1858-1861).
Paying considerable attention to the education of student youth, MI Pirogov at the same time worried about their daily needs. With his active participation, the first student classes were organized at the University of Kyiv to provide material assistance to students. MI Pirogov also contributed to the creation of a student library and lecture hall. At the request of students MI Pirogov before leaving Kiev presented for the lecture his photo portrait, on which he made an inscription: “I love and respect youth. Because I remember mine. NI Pirogov, 1861, April 13, Kiev.
In 1875, the city Alexander Hospital was opened in Kyiv, which became the base for a number of clinics of the medical faculty.
In the same year, a building was built for the Department of General Pathology and Histology (now Bohdan Khmelnytsky Street), and 10 years later – the building of the Faculty Therapeutic and Surgical Clinics (now 17 Taras Shevchenko Boulevard).
During this period, a number of new departments were established at the Faculty of Medicine: operative surgery, nervous diseases, physiological chemistry, pediatrics, surgical pathology, and others. The Medical Faculty becomes the largest faculty at Kyiv University. In 1885 986 students studied here.
In the 60’s – 80’s of the XIX century. the teaching staff of the faculty was replenished with a number of outstanding scientists, among whom were VO Bets, VT Pokrovsky, PI Peremezhko, VB Tomsa, MV Sklifosovsky, VA Subbotin, M A. Hrzhonshchevsky, GM Minkh, AV Ivanov and others.
In the late XIX – early XX centuries. a number of departments were headed by great scientists – MI Stukovenkov, VV Pidvysotsky, VE Chernov, OD Pavlovsky, SM Reformatsky, MM Volkovich, VP Obraztsov, F. G. Yanovsky, VK Vysokovych, MM Dieterichs, KE Dobrovolsky, AP Krymov, OV Korchak-Chepurkivsky, V. Yu. Chagovets.
Ukrainian anatomist and histologist VO Betz made a significant contribution to the study of microscopic anatomy and physiology of the central nervous system. His classic work “Anatomy of the surface of the brain” was the beginning of the modern doctrine of the cellular structure of the cerebral cortex. VO Betz’s research on the structure of the adrenal glands, bone development and growth, and clinical diagnosis were also of great importance.
Prominent pathologist and epidemiologist GM Minch with his research, sometimes associated with risk to life, introduced much new into the etiology and pathogenesis of a number of infectious diseases.
Widely known works of the founder of the Kiev school of pathologists VV Pidvysotsky, devoted to the microscopic structure of the pancreas, the regeneration process, problems of general pathology, infection and immunity, the etiology of malignant tumors, endocrinology and more. The textbook “Fundamentals of General Pathology” written by him in Kyiv survived 20 editions and was translated into 17 languages.
A student of VV Pidvysotsky, a prominent epidemiologist DK Zabolotny emphasized that the Kiev period was the most fruitful period of his life from a scientific point of view.
One of the founders of the national histophysiology and sanitary education of the population was Professor MA Hrzhonshchevsky. He proposed a method of physiological injection, which has not lost its significance today, created valuable work on the structure and function of blood and lymphatic vessels, kidneys, liver and more.
One of his first students, Professor VT Pokrovsky, successfully developed SP Botkin’s ideas in Kyiv. A significant contribution to the development of hygiene was made by the founder of this department, Professor VA Subbotin, and in the field of pediatrics – Professor VE Chernov.
The classic work of Professor PI Peremezhko “On the division of animal cells” won its author general recognition and respect in the scientific world.
Professor VK Vysokovych, one of the most prominent pathologists and bacteriologists of his time, was very popular.
Talented innovators were the well-known surgeon MM Volkovych, one of the founders of electrophysiology V. Yu. Chagovets, the founders of the Kyiv therapeutic school VP Obraztsov, FG Yanovsky and others.
In the second half of the XIX century. the role of the medical faculty as a center uniting creative doctors-practitioners of Kyiv, Kyiv province and other provinces of the South-Western region has grown. At the faculty there were a number of scientific associations, which included professors and practitioners.
In 1840, the Society of Kyiv Physicians was organized, which was invariably headed from 1849 by professors of the medical faculty. In 1869, most of the professors of the faculty, along with professors of other faculties, took part in the founding of the University Society of Naturalists. On the initiative of the medical student A. Kisel, the future outstanding domestic pediatrician, in 1881 the student scientific society “Clinical society of medical students” was organized. In 1896 a physico-medical society was formed at the University of Kyiv. Its first chairman was Professor MI Stukovenkov.
A number of clinicians’ associations are organized at the faculty: the Scientific Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (1885), the Psychiatric Society (1897), and the Dermatological and Syphilidological Societies (1900). “Proceedings”, “Notes” and other publications of these societies were of significant scientific value.
Professors of the medical faculty considered it their duty to promote medical knowledge and improve the medical culture of the population of Kyiv and Ukraine. For many years, Professor MA Hrzhonshchevsky headed the commission of medical folk readings established in 1886.
In March 1920, by order of the 111th Kyiv Provincial Education, the Institute of Public Health was established in Kyiv, which united the medical faculty of Kyiv University with the medical faculty of the Ukrainian State University and the Women’s Medical Institute.
|1840||His Imperial Majesty Nicholas I signed the Supreme Rescript on the opening of the medical faculty at the University of St. Vladimir in Kiev (April 29 in the style)|
|1841||approved by the decision of the Council of Professors of the University of St. Vladimir on the opening in September 1841 of the medical faculty. The first set – 29 students. On September 23 (9), Professor MI Kozlov gave the first lecture on anatomy, and on September 26 (12), Professor VO Karavaev gave the first lecture on the encyclopedia and methodology of medicine.|
|1842||the activity of the medical faculty under the new Statute of 1842 was started, according to which the teaching of additional disciplines was organized, the department of state medical science was created.|
|1843||Professor VO Karavaev was appointed the first dean of the medical faculty of the University of St. Vladimir|
|1853||the anatomical theater of the medical faculty was opened|
|1881||organized a student scientific society – “Clinical Society of Medical Students”. The organizer of the society is a student OA Kysil, later a prominent pediatrician and public figure|
|1885||a surgical and therapeutic clinic was built|
|1888||an obstetric clinic was built|
|1920||The Kyiv Institute of Health Care was established, which united the medical faculty of the University of St. Volodymyr, Women’s Medical Institute, Medical Faculty of the Ukrainian State University. It became part of the Odontological Institute in October 1920, transformed into a faculty of the same name.|
|1921||The Kyiv Institute of Health Care was renamed the Kyiv State Medical Academy, which later became the Kyiv Medical Institute.|
|1930||began publication of the newspaper “Red Physician”, which in 1936 was renamed “Medical Staff”|
|1943||The institute resumed classes in Kyiv|
|1946||Kyiv Medical Institute is named after the President of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Academician OO Bogomolets|
|1965||The Museum of the History of Medicine was organized on the basis of the Institute (since 1982 – the National Museum of Medicine of Ukraine)|
|1992||The institute was reorganized into the Bogomolets Ukrainian State Medical University|
|1995||By the Decree of the President of Ukraine, the university was granted the status of the Bogomolets National Medical University|
accession of the University to the association of signatories of the Grand Charter of the world’s leading universities (Magna Charta Universitatum), Bologna, Italy
NAMES OF OUTSTANDING FIGURES